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花旗国的半边天

An Exploration of Women's Issues

 
 
 

日志

 
 

在男性主导的领域里工作的女性(Women in Male-Dominated Fields)  

2012-02-03 15:31:06|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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在男性主导的领域里工作的女性(Women in Male-Dominated Fields) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天

    在美国社会,男性曾一度在很多职业领域中占大多数。在上一两代人中间,科学、商务等很多职业领域基本上都由男性主导,而女性大多只能担当全职的主妇。然而,随着性别平等的概念逐渐渗透到几乎每个领域,这个局面正在扭转。比如说65年前,持有理工科文凭的人中间仅有21%为女性。而在2009年,持有理工科文凭的介于25至39岁的女青年占了男女总数的47%。在心理学和生物科学领域,当代女性任职者更占据了大多数。然而在工程设计和计算机科学领域,性别差距依然存在,从事这些行业的女性仅占18%。  

   In America, many fields were once male-dominated.  Merely a generation or two ago, fields like science, business, and other professions were predominantly for males, especially as women took on more domestic roles.  However, the trend has brought more equality to nearly every field.  For example, in people over 65 years, only 21% of science and engineering degree-holders were women.  In 2009, 47% of 25 to 39 year old engineering and science degree-holders were women.  In fields like psychology and biological sciences, women currently make up the majority of degree-holders.  However, a disparity still exists in fields like engineering and computer sciences, where women only make up 18% of the field. 

       As women enter fields that were once considered for males only, they also face changing expectations for these fields as well as unique gender-related pressures.  For example, in the store where I work, the manager is a middle-aged woman, and she has commented on the difficulties of being a woman in management.  She often feels that she has to prove herself as a woman, and that she needs to do twice as good to receive the recognition that a male counterpart may receive.  Pay inequalities are still a concern even for successful women in male-dominated fields.  In 2010, women earned only about 83% of a man’s weekly wage.  The concerns for these pay differences are relevant and pose a continuing problem that America has yet to fully overcome.

       Within the past 40 years, women have expanded from teachers, nurses, and secretaries to many fields.  Famous women, like former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Conner, talk show host Oprah Winfrey, and chef and TV star Rachel Ray, help to pave the way for other women trying to enter these fields.  These pioneers have helped women to achieve equality in their fields.  However, women still face obstacles in many fields and women often feel they need to prove themselves or be extraordinary in their fields for ordinary recognition. 

Discussion Question

Are you a woman in a male-dominated field?  How can women gain more equality in fields that are still dominated by men?  Do you think there will ever be complete equality in pay and participation in all fields. 

你从事的职业是由男性主导吗?女性如何在男性主导的行业中争取公平?你认为所有行业都有可能在薪酬与决策参与方面实现绝对的平等吗?

Sources:

Gillum, J. (2010). Census: Women closing in on male-dominated fields. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2010-09-29-gender29_ST_N.htm

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