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花旗国的半边天

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教育修正案第九条——派特斯.敏柯最后的遗产(Patsy Mink’s Legacy: Title IX)  

2012-02-29 12:42:17|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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教育修正案第九条——派特斯?敏柯最后的遗产(Patsy Mink’s Legacy: Title IX) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天

 派特斯·敏柯的一生之所以卓尔不凡,关键在于她为妇女和少数族裔克服了无数挑战。而“第九条”的法案,则是敏柯在卓越的一生中为后人留下的最后一笔遗产。敏柯在这条法案的实现过程中起了至关重要的作用——她既是编者也是拥护者。因此在这位传奇女子辞世后,人们把第九条法案更名为《派特斯·敏柯教育机会平等法》(Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act)。

Patsy Mink led an extraordinary life, as she overcame many different challenges that women and minorities faced.  However, Mink’s lasting legacy is a piece of legislation called Title IX.  After Mink’s passing, the law was renamed Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act because of Mink’s critical role as an author and supporter of the law.

       Title IX, passed in 1972, states, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.”  In other words, women and men must have equal access and equal opportunities when it comes to educational programs.  For American women, this meant that federally funded programs were now more accessible.  For example, before 1972, women often faced discrimination in being accepted to colleges or specific programs, like medical or legal programs.  The implementation of Title IX required that women have the same academic opportunities as men.  As a result, more women were able to enter fields traditionally dominated by men.  For example, in 1972, women accounted for only 7% of all law degrees, but in 1994, women earned 43% of all law degrees.

       Although Title IX helped to expand academic opportunities for women, Title IX most notably expanded opportunities for women in athletics.  After Title IX passed, colleges and high schools were required to ensure that women had the same athletic chances as men.  This does not mean that women must have the exact same sports (for example wrestling or baseball) or that the exact same amount must be spent on women’s sports as men’s sports.  Rather, it means that financial aid must be proportionate for women and men.  It also means that the sports offered at a university must equal the interests and abilities of the student body.  Finally, women and men must have equal access to sports facilities, equipment, practice and game times, coaching, and other related services.  Title IX significantly increased women’s participation in college sports, and allowed women to showcase their talents in both the classroom and on the field.

Note:  This is part two of two of a series featuring Patsy Mink and her lasting legacy, Title IX.

注意:这是承接上篇的派特斯.敏柯介绍的第二部分。

Discussion Questions

       What do you think about Title IX?  Do you think that gender equality is only possible through legislation?  In other words, without gender equality laws, is equality impossible?

你如何看待教育修正案第九条?你认为性别平等只有在法律约束下才能实现吗?换句话说,假如没有关于性别平等的法律,男女间的平等还可能成为现实吗?

Sources

About Title IX. (2006). Retrieved from http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html

U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.) Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/oasam/regs/statutes/titleix.htm

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