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花旗国的半边天

An Exploration of Women's Issues

 
 
 

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吸烟——致命的嗜好 (Smoking: A Deadly Habit)  

2011-09-21 21:15:04|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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吸烟——致命的嗜好 (Smoking: A Deadly Habit) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天
 1950年,一群医学家和统计学家共同进行了一个有说服力的实验,证明了吸烟与肺癌之间确有关联。从那时起,别的研究也提供了越来越确凿的证据,表明吸烟不仅可能引起肺癌,还是其他多种严重疾病的诱因。事实很明显,吸烟是一个不健康甚至是致命的嗜好。然而,美国目前有18.3%的女性和23.1的男性仍在吸烟。虽然总的来说,女性吸烟的可能性比男性更小,但其承担的风险却比男性高。最近有研究显示,吸烟对男女健康都不利,但有一些由吸烟引起的并发症单单威胁着女性的健康。


In 1950, a group of physicians and statisticians conducted a conclusive experiment linking lung cancer to smoking. Since that time, other studies have provided increasingly irrefutable不可否认 evidence that smoking causes not only lung cancer, but other severe health conditions as well. The facts seem clear: smoking is an unhealthy and often deadly habit. Nonetheless, 18.3 percent of women and 23.1 percent of men in the United States are still smokers today. Although on the whole, women are less likely to smoke than men, the consequences of doing so may be higher for them. Recent research has suggested that though smoking is an unhealthy habit for both men and women, there are additional health complications that affect women only.


Many of the negative health effects of smoking are the same for women and men. Just to name a few, smoking can lead to lung disease, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke and cataracts. In 1987, lung cancer surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer deaths among American women. While breast cancer is largely unpreventable, lung cancer can be avoided by most women if they choose not to smoke, making lung cancer's status as the number one cancer killer among women truly troubling.


In addition to the health risks shared by male and female smokers, female smokers face a number of health complications that exclusively affect them. Women who smoke significantly increase their risk of developing cervical cancer. Smoking also has many adverse effects on a woman's reproductive system. Female smokers are more likely than their nonsmoking counterparts to experience menstrual problems, such as painful periods and irregular bleeding. They are also more likely to have trouble conceiving, as smoking can significantly decrease fertility. Smokers who do conceive and who continue to smoke during pregnancy (roughly 10.7 of pregnant women smoke) put not only themselves at risks, but their unborn children as well. Children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy frequently have low birth weights and are more likely to suffer from physical and developmental abnormalities than children born to nonsmoking mothers.


Despite the mounting evidence that smoking is extremely dangerous, particularly for women, many people still take up smoking. Alarmingly, one in five high school girls currently smoke. Most American schools currently have health programs that aggressively discourage smoking by teaching about the consequences of smoking, meaning this sizable portion of girls who take up smoking do so fully aware of the health risks they are taking.



讨论:你认为大多数女人都了解吸烟所带来的健康威胁吗? (Discussion Question: Do you think most women are aware of the health risks associated with smoking?)



Sources:

"smoking." Encyclop?dia Britannica. Encyclop?dia Britannica Online. Encyclop?dia Britannica, 2011. Web. 17 Sep. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/550049/smoking>.


Riordan, Meg. "Women's Health and Smoking." Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, 26 Apr. 2011. Web.  17 Sept. 2011. 


"Smoking." Medline Plus. National Institute of Health, 15 Sept. 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2011.       <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/smoking.html>.   "Women and Smoking." National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet. National Cancer Institute, 3 Aug. 2010.       Web. 17 Sept. 2011. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/women>.  "Women and Tobacco Use." American Lung Association: Fighting For Air. American Lung  Association, 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2011. <http://www.lungusa.org/stop-smoking/about- smoking/facts-figures/women-and-tobacco-use.html>. 


Image:
By Sir Mildred Pierce (Flickr) [CC-BY-2.0 (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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