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花旗国的半边天

An Exploration of Women's Issues

 
 
 

日志

 
 

艺术——女性抵抗性别歧视的武器 (Activist Art: Women Use Art to Combat Gender Discrimination)  

2011-07-08 00:38:37|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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艺术——女性抵抗性别歧视的武器 (Activist Art: Women Use Art to Combat Gender Discrimination) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天
 西方传统的视觉艺术始终由男艺术家主导,尽管众多 著名的女艺术家也深受喜爱。过去很长的一段时间,很多艺术机构拒绝接受女学生,社会上也普遍认为不适合把女性的作品展示于众。多年过去,这两个阻碍女性在 艺术界取得成功的特殊因素本应逐渐消失,但今天女性的作品在很大程度上依然不被欣赏,在艺术馆展出的作品也为数不多。对这种表现机会的不平等,女艺术家作 出了反应:断言要提高古今女性作品的地位。虽然这些倡议分子坚持认为艺术界的性别不平等依然持续,他们已经成功引起了人们对女性艺术的关注,以至于今天很 多美术馆都尝试扩大收藏,展示更多的女艺术家的作品。


Despite popular appreciation of a handful of notable female artists, the western tradition of visual art has been traditionally dominated by the work of male artists. For much of history, many art institutes refused to accept female pupils and it was considered socially improper for women to display their own work in public. Over the years, both of these particular impediments to women's success in the art world have gradually vanished, but women's work continues to be largely unappreciated and underrepresented in art museums. In response to this lack of representation, female artists have become more assertive in promoting their own work and that of their colleagues and predecessors. Although these advocates insist that gender imbalance persists in the art world, their efforts have successfully attracted more attention to women's art, so much so that many museums today are attempting to broaden their collections to better represent the work of female artists.


Among these advocates for women's art is a group of women who call themselves the Guerrilla Girls. The Guerrilla Girls formed in 1985 when the Museum of Modern Art in New York City held an exhibition that claimed to be a comprehensive survey of the most significant contemporary art in the world. Shocked that only 13 of the 169 artists featured were female, the group's founding members began investigating gender imbalance in the art world. After finding that most of the world's influential art museums exhibited very few pieces by women artists, the Guerrilla Girls decided that they needed to aggressively call attention to this evident gender discrimination. To do so, they adopted some rather unusual and creative tactics. To focus attention on their message rather than on their personalities and to add an element of humor to their mission, the women in the group wear gorilla masks (a pun on the word “guerrilla”) when they make public appearances and use the names of dead female artists as pseudonyms. Artists themselves, the Guerrilla Girls design posters that educate people about gender discrimination. One of their most famous posters reads “Do women have to be naked to get into U.S. museums?”, a reference to the large number of paintings of female nudes compared to the small number of pieces by female artists in most museums' collections. In addition to their activist artwork, the Guerrilla Girls give lectures and publish books about female artists and the discrimination they face in the art world.


Since their initial efforts in the eighties, the Guerrilla Girls have taken their message worldwide and expanded their efforts to include exposing gender and racial discrimination in the film industry as well as traditional visual art. The Guerrilla Girls believe that female artists still face discrimination, but they do think that that discrimination is less than it once was because of their efforts. The Museum of Modern Art, the same museum that held the exhibit that so angered the Guerrilla Girls' founders has not only expanded its collection to include more work by female artists, but also now hosts a website dedicated to providing information about women artists in modern art (http://www.moma.org/explore/publications/modern_women). Additionally, the work of the Guerrilla Girls has even found its way into many museums' exhibitions and the group is frequently asked to speak at prestigious art institutions. These facts alone are a definite indication that even if gender discrimination in the art world has not entirely disappeared, people are at least more aware of its presence and desirous of ending it, thanks to the efforts of groups like the Guerrilla Girls.


To learn more about the Guerrilla Girls and to see some of their activist artwork, visit their website at http://www.guerrillagirls.com/



讨论:艺术如何在其他方面为激进运动所用?(Discussion Question: How else might art be used as a tool for activism?)




Sources:
Guerrilla Girls: Fighting Discrimination With Facts, Humor, and Fake Fur. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 July 
     2011. <http://www.guerrillagirls.com/index.shtml>. 
Modern Women: Women Artists at the Museum of Modern Art. The Museum of Modern Art, n.d. Web. 7 July 
     2011. 

Image:
By Artaxerex (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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