注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

花旗国的半边天

An Exploration of Women's Issues

 
 
 

日志

 
 

女性与政治 (The Politics of Femininity)  

2011-07-29 23:10:51|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 
女性与政治 (The Politics of Femininity) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天
   纵观美国历史,政治是由男性单独主导的舞台。虽然妇女不像从前一样被阻挡在政治领域之外,但女政治家还是面临着许多男政治家无需面对的挑战。特别值得指出的是,她们不得不小心经营自己的公众形象,格外注意自己的性别身份。为了能在仍由男性主导的政坛上功成名就,她们不能随意展现自己阴柔的一面,但也不能表现得过分强悍,否则恐怕会被选民和媒体贴上“不正常”、“不男不女”的标签。这种难以获得的平衡往往使女政治家进退两难,陷于显著的劣势,因为男性的政治家们根本无需在意他们的性别。

    Throughout most of American history, politics was the sole domain of men.  Although women are no longer prevented from running for political office as they once were, female politicians still face unique challenges that are not shared by their male counterparts.  Specifically, they must be careful in how they cultivate their public image and gender-based identity.  They must avoid seeming too feminine in order to succeed in the still predominantly male political arena, but they cannot appear completely unfeminine for fear of being labelled as unnatural and unidentifiable by voters and the media.  It is a hard balance to strike, which puts female politicians at a distinct disadvantage to their male counterparts, who need not be so conscious of their gender.

    Although it seemingly has little to do with politics, female politicians must pay close attention to how they dress.  Women who are too fashion conscious and dress in what seems to be too feminine a manner risk being branded as frivolous and not being taken seriously.  At the same time, female politicians have been mocked in the past for emulating the style of male politicians with unfeminine or unflattering suits.  The worst mistake a female politician can make with their clothing, however, is to dress in a manner that is immodest or even remotely provocative.  Female politicians have been heavily criticized for showing cleavage and for wearing too short skirts.  Though it seems that clothing should have a negligible impact on politics, this criticism can be deadly to a woman's political career.

    Beyond their physical appearance, female politicians need to be more careful than men in terms of how they act.  Because men were the exclusive proprietors of American politics for so many years, a thread of masculinity and “machoism” persists in current political culture.  Americans seem to favor politicians who show signs of being strong, assertive, and even forceful when necessary– all traits that are stereotypically considered masculine.  Men are generally perceived as more assertive than women, in part because of the social conditioning that children receive at a young age.  Behavioral studies have shown that women are generally less willing to claim credit for their work than men because society's deeply ingrained standards of femininity have taught them since childhood that to be overly eager to claim credit is a sign of immodesty.  Female politicians must be extra careful to ignore this social conditioning because of how important it is that they are perceived as assertive and because of how achievement driven politics is.  At the same time, however, they must still be cautious about appearing too eager to claim credit; social experiments have shown that bragging is generally perceived as more unattractive in women than in men.

    A frequent casualty of female politicians' attempts to toe the line between being too feminine and not feminine enough is the support of women voters.  Though it may seem that women voters would readily support another woman trying to succeed in the male-dominated world of politics, they are easily alienated by a female politicians who try too hard to downplay their femininity.  When a female politician seems to become too unfeminine or too masculine in terms of her behavior or the issues she supports, women voters are apt to think that woman unnatural or that she has no concern for their opinion.  Women voters don't want female politicians to conform to traditional standards of femininity, yet they are suspicious and resentful when these politicians too vigorously disavow these standards, rendering themselves impossible to identify with.

    Because of the conflicting expectations that they be able to work within a macho-centric political atmosphere but still maintain a vestige of femininity, female politicians must constantly cultivate their image in an effort to strike the perfect balance.  The difficulty of doing so perhaps accounts for the continued underrepresentation of women in national political office in the United States.


女政治家还面临哪些挑战? (Discussion Question: What other challenges do female politicians face?)


Sources:
Dokoupil, Tony. "Why Female Politicians Are More Effective." Newsweek 22 Jan. 2011: n. pag.
     Newsweek. Web. 28 July 2011. <http://www.newsweek.com/2011/01/22/
     why-female-politicians-are-more-effective.html>.
Douglas, Susan J. "Why Women Hate Hillary." In These Times 26 Apr. 2007: n. pag. In These Times.
     Web. 28 July 2011. <http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/3129/why_women_hate_hillary/>.
Kristof, Nicholas D. "When Women Rule." The New York Times 10 Feb. 2008: n. pag. The New York Times.
     Web. 28 July 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/10/opinion/
     10kristof.html?em&ex=1202878800&en=f5afadb8415b1e85&ei=5087%0A>.
Page, Susan. "Study: Sexist Insults Hurt Female Politicians." USA Today 23 Sept. 2010: n. pag.
     USA Today. Web. 28 July 2011. <http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/
     2010-09-22-sexist-insults-female-politicians_N.htm>.

Image:
U.S. Senator Boxer gives a speech
By Official photo of the Barbara Boxer Senate website [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  评论这张
 
阅读(388)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017