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花旗国的半边天

An Exploration of Women's Issues

 
 
 

日志

 
 

妇女的职业权利保护 (The Protection of Women's Workplace Rights)  

2011-04-22 05:17:50|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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妇女的职业权利保护 (The Protection of Womens Workplace Rights) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天
 

自从妇女开始走出家门,步入职场之时起,争取妇女 职业平等的战争就从未消停。过去,符合资格的女性候选人常常因为她们的性别而被拒绝录用。即使被录用了,做相同的工作,女职工比男职工领的薪酬要少。我们 无可否认,性别歧视的实例依然时有发生,但今天女性一旦受到这样的歧视,美国有很多法律能为她们提供维权的依据。


Achieving equality for women in the workplace has been an ongoing battle ever since women began to work outside of the home. In the past, qualified female candidates were consistently denied jobs merely because of their sex and female employees were paid less than their male counterparts for doing the same work. Although it is impossible to deny that instances of gender-based discrimination still occur, today there are laws in the United States that provide women with an avenue of legal recourse should they experience such discrimination.


In 1964, the Civil Rights Act was passed to prohibit employment discrimination based on the race, color, religion, sex, or national origin of a candidate. While this act was primarily designed to prevent discrimination during the job-hiring process, the Equal Pay Act ensures that men and women doing equivalent jobs are paid equal wages. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 enforces these laws by punishing employers who intentionally discriminate. Under this law, employers who engage in discriminatory practices can be forced to provide monetary compensation or, in some other way, make reparation for their violation of the law.


While these laws should theoretically prevent all gender-based discrimination, they fail to protect women from pregnancy-related discrimination. Because the laws are designed to protect qualified candidates or employees from being discriminated against, employers can escape the penalties of anti-discrimination laws if they are able to claim that a candidate or employee is not capable to perform her job. In the past, many employers were able to claim that women were incapable of performing their jobs properly because pregnancy and childbirth made them miss work. Employers were unwilling to give their workers maternity leave so they were reluctant to hire young women considered to be in their prime childbearing years and would often find excuses to fire female employees who wanted time off for childbirth related reasons.


The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 put an end to this more covert form of gender-based discrimination by prohibiting employers from discriminating against a woman because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. If women are temporarily disabled by medical complications related to pregnancy, employers are required to treat them as they would any other temporarily disabled employee. Disabled employees are protected by another set of laws that dictate that temporarily disabled employee be given accommodations such as alternative assignments or disability leave. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 helps women take time off because of pregnancy or childbirth by requiring the employers to allow women to take unpaid leave for reasons such as the birth and care of a child.


As with any attempt to eradicate discrimination, the fight to end gender-based discrimination is an ongoing process, but these laws have gradually provided women in America with more and more protection in the workplace.


讨论:在中国,女性的职业权利是如何受到保护的? (Discussion Question: How are women's workplace rights protected in China?)


Sources:

Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination Questions And Answers. The U.S. Equal Employment       Opportunity Commission, 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. <http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html>.  Thompson, Lani. "List of Labor Laws Protecting Women." eHow. N.p., 2010. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.       <http://www.ehow.com/list_6626623_list-labor-laws-protecting-women.html>. 

Photo:
American technology entrepreneur Caterina Fake, co-founder of Flickr.
By Robert Scoble from Half Moon Bay, USA (Cropped from Catarina Fake, co-founder of Flickr)
[CC-BY- 2.0 (www.creative commons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons


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