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花旗国的半边天

An Exploration of Women's Issues

 
 
 

日志

 
 

人口贩卖与现代奴役(Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery)  

2011-12-08 20:26:04|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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人口贩卖与现代奴役(Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天
 

很多人以为奴役制只存在于历史卷页中,殊不知到了今天,世界依然有很多人因为遭受贩卖而沦为奴隶。美国国务院年初发布的一份报告阐述了人口贩卖的定义——以剥削他人,强制他人提供服务为目的的一系列非法行为,包括性奴役和婚内强制奴役。一般手段为对人口的运输、移送,但人口贩卖行为不一定包括这两个表现。由于受害者往往不能或不敢揭露他们受虐的事实,人口贩卖带来的影响和范围都难以估量。Somaly Mam Foundation(一个致力于消除人口贩卖的慈善组织)估计,当前全世界有二千七百万人口正在服奴役,而人口贩卖作为世界第二大的集团犯罪,增长最为迅速。女性和儿童更是首当其冲,Somaly Mam Foundation估计每年有两百万妇女和儿童被出卖作奴隶。

        Most people think of slavery as a thing of the past.  However, many people across the world today live in a state of enslavement as a result of human trafficking.  According to a report by the U.S. State Department released earlier this year, the term human trafficking is used to refer to a number of different practices in which one person forces another into compelled service, including sex slavery and involuntary domestic servitude.  These practices often entail the migration or physical transportation of a person, but do not necessarily need to do so to constitute human trafficking.  Because its victims are often unable or too fearful to report their abuse, it is difficult to determine the exact scope or impact of human trafficking, but the Somaly Mam Foundation (an organization dedicated to ending human trafficking) estimates that 27 million people are currently enslaved and that human trafficking is the second largest and the fastest growing type of organized crime worldwide.  Women and children are particularly at risk: the Somaly Mam Foundation estimates that 2 million women and children are sold into slavery each year.

       Sex slavery is one of the most horrific forms of human trafficking.  Women and children are abducted or lured into entrapment and then forced into prostitution, usually in brothels.  Those who are enslaved by brothels are entrapped by means of physical and psychological force and raped multiple times a night for the owners' profit.  Youth and virginity is valued highly in brothels, meaning that many of the victims of sex trafficking are very young.  Children as young as five have been discovered in brothels, forced into prostitution long before they even hit puberty.

       Another common form of human trafficking is involuntary domestic servitude.  The victims of this form of human trafficking are forced or coerced into performing housekeeping or childcare work without any pay.  Though less grotesque than sex trafficking, this form of trafficking is in many ways more insidious.  Sex trafficking is usually concentrated around brothels, making it possible to identify and shut down these centers on a case-by-case basis.  Domestic servitude, however, usually occurs in isolated households that are much more scattered and thus more difficult to identify and confront.  Women from impoverished countries are often lured into domestic slavery with the promise of a better life in another country.  Following promises of a job and economic security, they migrate to another country to work in a household.  Once in a new country without any connections, they often feel they have no choice but to stay with the household that offers them shelter, even if that household is taking advantage of them.

       The prevalence of human trafficking in today's world is truly troubling and has prompted international efforts to end the practice once and for all.  The United Nations has created a Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons and a Trafficking Victims Protection Act in an effort to bring global attention to this issue and to create an concerted international movement to combat human trafficking.  Additionally, a variety of private non-government organizations (NGOs) are solely dedicated to ending human trafficking and to help rehabilitate its victims.  One such organization is the Somaly Mam Foundation.  Founded by Somaly Mam, a survivor of sex slavery herself, the Foundation seeks to fight the horrific effects of human trafficking.  Among other services, it assists in raids on brothels and offers emotional and economic support and education to the victims found in these brothels.

       With the joint efforts of international governments and NGOs like the Somaly Mam Foundation, human trafficking can be combatted and greatly reduced.  Hopefully, through these efforts human trafficking will one day be completely nonexistent.  However, such a possibility is still very far away: human trafficking is currently one of the world's most pressing human rights concerns as it affects so many people in so horrific a fashion.

      

 

Discussion Question: What can individuals do to help end human trafficking?

讨论:要消除人口贩卖犯罪,个人可做出什么努力?



Sources:

Gonzalez, David. "When American Dream Leads to Servitude." The New York Times 24 Apr. 2007: n. pag. 
     The New York Times. Web. 8 Dec. 2011. 

Kristof, Nicholas D. "Fighting Back, One Brothel Raid At A Time." The New York Times 12 Nov. 2011: 
     n. pag. The New York Times. Web. 8 Dec. 2011. 

Kristof, Nicholas D. "The 21st-Century Slave Trade." The New York Times 27 Apr. 2007: n. pag. The 
     New York Times. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.

Somaly Mam Foundation. N.p., 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2011. <http://www.somaly.org/>. 

Image source: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/mobile/2010/11/201011160915566.722224e-02.html#axzz1fwhsZOVL( Above, a Filipina woman holds the high school ID of her missing daughter.)
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