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花旗国的半边天

An Exploration of Women's Issues

 
 
 

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家庭暴力泛滥,谁为妇女撑起保护伞? (Protecting Women From Domestic Violence)  

2011-11-25 13:08:10|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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家庭暴力泛滥,谁为妇女撑起保护伞?  (Protecting Women From Domestic Violence) - 美国马尾妹 - 花旗国的半边天
 

美国国务卿希拉里·克林顿及全球妇女问题办公室呼吁国际社会开展反性别暴力运动。该运动从1125日(国际终止妇女受暴日)开始至1210日结束,为期十六天,目的是提醒社会:协助全球妇女逃离暴力侵害的梦魇,我们责无旁贷。因此,本周话题将围绕家庭暴力展开,下周则谈谈人口贩卖的问题

Secretary of State Clinton and the State Department’s Office of Global Women's Issues has called for 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence.  Commencing on November 25 with the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women and ending December 10, this period offers an opportunity to renew our commitment to free women and girls from the nightmare of violence in the home and around the world.  In the spirit of this, we will focus this week on Domestic Violence and next week on the problem of Human Trafficking.

家庭暴力是世界上最常见一种的性别暴力,形式有多种,包括身体攻击、情感创伤和性侵犯等。其最显著的特点是施暴者与受害者关系密切,一般是受害者的配偶或交往对象。而家庭暴力的受害者绝大部分是女性。根据美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)调查显示,美国每年有480万妇女遭遇伴侣的暴力袭击;由家庭暴力导致死亡的恶性案件中,女受害者的比例高达70%。近几十年,人们逐渐注意到家庭暴力问题的严重性,特别是女性在很大程度上面临着威胁,全国上下已经开始采取措施预防家庭暴力,并为受害者提供各方面援助。

Worldwide, domestic violence is the most common form of gender violence.  The term domestic violence encompasses a broad range of abuse, including physical, sexual, and emotional aggression.  Its defining characteristic is that the victim's abuser is an intimate relation, usually a spouse or dating partner.  The victims of domestic violence are predominantly female: according to the Center for Disease Control, 4.8 million women every year are abused by an intimate partner in the U.S. and women account for 70 percent of the total deaths resulting from this kind of abuse.  Over the past few decades, growing awareness of the severity of domestic violence and the extent to which women are particularly at risk has led to national efforts both to prevent future violence and to help those who have already been affected.

        Women stay in abusive relationships for a variety of complex emotional and practical reasons, but one of the most common motivators is fear.  Many battered fear that leaving their abuser will only lead to more violence and fear that they will not have a safe place to stay.  Shelters address these concerns and provide battered women with a safe refuge in an attempt to ensure that women do not feel trapped and obligated to tolerate violence directed against them.  Many shelters provide women with not only a safe place to stay, but also educational services to teach them to cope with the abuse they have experienced and to protect themselves from future abuse.  The Women's Survival Space in New York State serves as a model for many such shelters.  Founded in 1976, the Women's Survival Space was one of the first shelters that created an environment suitable for children so that women could flee abusive relationships with their children.  It currently provides women and their children with emergency housing in individual apartments while helping them find permanent housing and educating them about the services available that will help them protect themselves in future.

       Today, shelters like the Women's Survival Space exist in various forms across the country, but up until relatively recently this was not necessarily the case.  The passage of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) in 1994 was crucial to establishing the current widespread existence of shelters for battered women.  The VAWA mandated that recognition and funding support be given to shelters and crisis response centers and encouraged the cooperation of the criminal justice system, social services, and private non-profit organizations.  By doing so, the VAWA improved the efficacy of community-based response to domestic violence, sexual violence, and stalking.  The prevalence of domestic violence is notoriously difficult to track because of the secrecy that surrounds it, but one good indication of the VAWA's success is that more women self-reported their abuse after the act was passed than before (59 percent of battered women reported their abuse in 1998, up from 48 percent in 1993).  The increased willingness of women to report their abuse and seek help suggests that they felt sufficiently assured that they would be helped and protected by the shelters and response services that the VAWA promoted.

       The evident success of the VAWA and shelters like the Women's Survival Space is certainly cause for celebration; however, the fact that so many women still are still abused by an intimate partner clearly indicates that domestic violence remains an extremely grave and pressing issue that merits serious consideration.


Sources:

Center Against Domestic Violence. Center Against Domestic Violence, 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2011. 
     <http://www.cadvny.org/>. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Understanding Intimate Partner Violence." CDC.gov. 
     Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Web. 25 Nov. 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/ 
     ViolencePrevention/pdf/IPV_factsheet-a.pdf>. 

"Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)." The Hotline. National Domestic Violence Hotline, n.d. Web. 25 
     Nov. 2011. <http://www.thehotline.org/get-educated/violence-against-women-act-vawa/>. 

Image source: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/iipdigital-mgck/index.html#axzz1egSVda6x (Cardboard silhouettes represent women killed in domestic violence in Bucharest at a 2010 event for International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women)

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